The answers to the fundamental questions of identity, meaning and purpose are essential components of psychological well-being and determining factors in the formation of coping skills and resiliency to life’s challenges. It is within this spiritual dimension [looking beyond self] that one is able to define values that include a concept of justice, respect for human rights and caring for the wellness of others (Ryś, 2009). Identity and integrity have as much to do with shadows and limits, wounds and fears, as with strengths and potentials (Palmer, 1998). It is only from a sense of continuing truths that we can draw the courage for change, even for the constant, day-to-day changes of growth and aging (Bateson, 1994). Expressive arts can be used as a tool to bridge the ethereal, philosophical world of spirituality and clarifying one’s identity which may result in beneficial effects on health and well-being, a reduction in both psychological and physical stressors, increased quality of life and fulfillment of one’s potential and purpose in life.


Bateson, M. C. (1994). Peripheral visions: Learning along the way. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Palmer, P. J. (1998). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Ryś, E. (2009). The sense of life as a subjective spiritual human experience. Existential Analysis, 20(1), 50-68. Retrieved from